I believe that diesels are 'excess air' machines even at full-rated load. because it's a no-brainer in deciding how much air to flow when too much is OK.
BTW, the ultimate 'excess air' internal combustion engine is the gas turbine. About 10%-15% of the air is used for combustion, the rest is for cooling the combustion by-products and turbine wheel. Their response to a step load is phenominal, as they can produce 4-5 times rated power for a short time! Turbine-powered aircraft have 'throttle' setting that go beyond 100%, for short-time power when it's needed like an emergency go-around. More fuel=more power=more heat. More power & heat for too long=melted parts spewing out the back end.