Probably not. As your available voltage deteriorated, the engine management systems were unable to do their jobs, thus the escalating failure of components (and subsequent indicators on the dashboard lighting up). I had an 86 Cavalier that had a dying alternator, and the result was pretty similar to yours...had a heck of a time limping it to my mechanic's shop for service as one by one, major electrical components would fail.
I am awaiting an alternator from FastLane right now for my 300E. I have an opposite issue to deal with which is overcharging (failed regulator). That is more prone to damage since too much current can harm the sensitive components of the engine management system. I believe there isn't any permanent damage right now, but the excess current caused the battery to vent sulphuric acid excessively, so I will have to check the condition of the battery after I install the new alternator.
Make sure your mechanic checks the condition of yours as well.
2009 ML350 (84K) - Family vehicle
2001 CLK430 Cabriolet (71K) - Wife's car
2005 BMW 645CI (124K) - My daily driver
2012 Mustang V6 (60K) - Daughter's car