Check the hoses on the idle control valve -- its in front of the fuel distributor under the air cleaner, held on by two bolts. Looks like a small beer can, has a two wire conection. If these hoses are hard and loose, they leak and can cause poor cold idle. This is the cheap fix.
Otherwise, it sounds as if you aren't getting the proper mixure cold -- check the coolant temp sensor to see if it as the correct resistance cold. I don't know where that is -- on the head somewhere, I think it has three wires on it. If it is bad, it will give you "closed loop" running mode when the oxygen sensor isn't hot enough to work. Once the oxygen sensor heats up, it will run fine. 30-90 sec would fit this senario.
1972 220D ?? miles
1988 300E 200,012
1987 300D Turbo killed 9/25/07, 275,000 miles
1985 Volvo 740 GLE Turobodiesel 218,000
1972 280 SE 4.5 165, 000 - It runs!