I have run out of fuel about a dozen time in my '75 300D. I have never had a problem restarting after priming the system with the palm operated primer. I have run all sorts of fuel, including home heating oil in the car without any filter problem as well.
I did have problems with glow plug relays, and my starter. I found a huge improvement in starting when I got a new starter. I didn't know that they were supposed to turn the engine over so fast. With a quick turning engine, it fired right up.
Diesels are harder to jump start. I have done this a number of times as well. It is best to use the other car to recharge your own battery for awhile first before trying to start the car.
If your starter is not turning the engine and you have ruled out cylinder lock by hand turning the engine as P.E. Haiges suggests, then you have to tackle the starter issue before anything else. IF the starter cannot turn the motor over, then everything else is moot. I got my starter from a salvage yard. It was almost new and didn't cost alot.
'05 E320 CDI - 86,000 miles
'86 300SDL - 360,000 miles
'85 300SD - 150,000 miles (sold)
'89 190D - 120,000 miles (sold)
'85 300SD - 317,000 miles (sold)
'98 ML320 - 270,000 miles (sold)
'75 300D - 170,000 miles (sold)
'83 Harley Davidson FLTC (Broken again) :-(
'61 Plymouth Valiant - 60k mikes
2004 Papillon (Oliver)
2005 Tzitzu (Griffon)
2009 Welsh Corgi (Buba)