I have a hard time answering that question. I erased my first attempt where I drew comparison to driving without a wheel. Its not quite the same although to a technician its the same.
Operating any system below its design criteria is asking for trouble. I'm surprised that your A/C still works without the shock (oooh maybe its doesn't, maybe it was disposable too).
To make matters worse the reason the shock fails most time is a failure of the tentioning devise which is rather pricey. The belt system here uses a rubber hub to transmit tention to the tentioner pulley. It acts like a spring. Just like your suspension the thing just flutters with out a shock. Without this system working properly the first casualty will be the speed matching circuitry in the A/C control relay. The next to go will be the belt itself and if using things to see what happens continues at that point you've got a few more miles till the motor stops from overheating.
Owner 24 bay BSC
Bosch Master, ASE master L1
26 years MB technician