Did you fill the spin on filter with diesel fuel or a diesel fuel additive prior to spinning it on? It does not sound like you have all the fuel system full. I would suggest getting a good charge, cracking ALL the fuel injection lines at the injectors and crank the engine over some, pump it some and repeat till you start getting some fuel out of at least one of the lines. Once you have fuel coming out of two of the lines, if the engine is healthy, button everything back up and it should start.
I did not quite understand one thing - was it running one day and then just would not start? Did the "no start" condition just come up all of a sudden or did it gradually get worse?