I don't think you caused any damages to the engine by only trying to start it. If you tried to start it several times, there was a lot of unburned raw fuel going into the cylinders. I would have an oil change done as soon as possible.
From you nice warm garage to minus 20, you could have some water condensation in your gas tank, causing some rough engine malfunctions. Get your gas tank as low as possible, pour in a few bottles of gas line antifreeze (methylic alcool) with a good injectors cleaner.