1) You shouldn't have to remove anything to get to the crank bolt if you have the right length of socket and extension.
2) Just the shroud. Maybe not even that if you know what you're doing.
3) I don't know about that. Maybe best to seal the radiator drain valve and pull the lower hose to drain the cooling system in the future.
4) You can't destroy the power steering pump that way. The belt will slip before you do any mechanical damage.
These engines are not particularly hard to turn even with the relatively high compression. I'm in terrible physical shape and I can turn a 400psi OM603 without undue strain. Remove the glow plugs so there's no compression. Don't use a puny 8" wrench.
Only turn the engine in the direction it turns when operating. That's clockwise looking at the engine from the front.