Most likely a vac leak, so the system goes way lean off warmup.
Check idle control hoses, brake booster line, tanny vac line, and the supply fittings for the rest of the vac system (emissions, AC, door locks).
Be aware that a blown diaphram or two in the door lock system (hardly unlikely at this age!) will create a serious vac leak.
Other possibilities are the seals on the injectors or the seals between the intake and mass air flow venturi, or a bad fuel pump or filter.
No computer on a 79, it didn't have an O2 sensor.
A weak ignition is also possible -- pull a couple of spark plugs and see what the look like. Evidence of rich running can mean defective ignition -- strong enough to run with a rich mixture, but fails when it leans out.
It's also possible you have defective warm up regulator, going over-lean after warmup -- you will need to check the fuel distrubutor pressures.
1972 220D ?? miles
1988 300E 200,012
1987 300D Turbo killed 9/25/07, 275,000 miles
1985 Volvo 740 GLE Turobodiesel 218,000
1972 280 SE 4.5 165, 000 - It runs!