If you didn't fill the fuel filter, the IP is now full of air. Takes a while to get rid of it at cranking speeds.
Try cracking all the injector lines at the injectors (14mm) and cranking with the pedal to the floor for a while. This will help purge the air out of the pump. Be prepared to crank for a while, and to charge the battery at least once.
Once you get diesel fuel at the injectors, tighten the cap nuts and try starting. You should at least get it to kick some right away. It will take a few minutes to run smooth -- takes a while to get the air out of the injectors.
I always change fuel filters with a hot engine, it will crank faster and start easier.
1972 220D ?? miles
1988 300E 200,012
1987 300D Turbo killed 9/25/07, 275,000 miles
1985 Volvo 740 GLE Turobodiesel 218,000
1972 280 SE 4.5 165, 000 - It runs!