Lets start with #4 because if you keep starting it with starter fluid there will be no need for the other answers.
Does your glow light work? Whether it does or doesn't the glow system should be checked. Total current flow should be over 80a when first turned on, probably closer to 100a. If its only 40 then you have three glow plugs out. They can all be tested with an ohm meter. They should be around .6 to .8 ohms. This must be done on a low scale. Telling the difference between zero ohms and .6 requires a close look.
If you are glowing properly, I would suspect a fuel leak down problem next and then lastly a compression problem.
As to NUMBER 1: What does it do in "D"? I presume your shift indicator is off due to a shift bushing problem as I doubt that you are driving without 4th gear which is what your question implies.
2: If its the water pump (which it probably is), it will be leaking from the lower vent hole. This hole is visable from the bottom. The whole thing is academic as the price at the MB dealer for a rebuilt pump is $25. It comes with a gasket and it wouldn't be worth changing the gasket and not the pump at that price.
3: Buy a MB CD-Rom from Partsshop!
5: You probably have a motor mount problem. Unless glow plugs aren't the problem with #1.
Bosch Master, ASE Master, L1
33 years MB technician