As far as fault codes relating to your problem, I would think about maybe the code for the O2 sensor, the front one is very important.
That would be the PO130 code in ME-SFI.
The acronyms you have listed are as follows:
ETC=Electronic Transmission Control Module
ESM=Electronic Shifter Module (the shifter is a control module!)
ME2-SFI is in effect the engine control module. ME2 is the "series" I guess you could call it, and SFI is sequential fuel injection.
EIS=Electronic Ignition Switch, which is the thing the key goes in to.
OCP=Overhead Control Panel, which is the dome light.
LCP=Lower Control panel, which is the window switches and all the other switches on the panel surrounding the shifter
PSE, that's kind of tricky, it's the pump under the seat which controls the power door locks, but has many other functions as well. I believe the acronym stands for pneumatic system equipment. There is another item referred to as the pse in the phone system, it's what integrates the phone handset into the fiber optics system for hands-free use. With this module the PSE stands for Phone System Equipment or something like that, they recently started calling it the HSE instead to lower confusion, the HSE stands for I believe Hand Set Equipment, don't quote me though. But on your test readout, it's for that central locking pump, which has many duties and can set fault codes, etc.
SAM=System Activation Module, it's in the front fuse box and has many various duties. Newer Mercedes have many of these.
DCM 1 & 2, those are door control modules, have varios duties regarding power windows, seat switches, and outside mirrors.
ESA FL and FR is the Electric Seat Adjustment modules, they are under the front seats and interact with the switches on the doors via the DCM's to operate the seats. The DCM's do the actual dirty work of operating the seats, but are controlled by the DCM's, as directed by the switches. FL and FR is front left and front rear.
HRA as you mentioned is the Headlamp Range Adjustment for the Xenon headlights.
ICM is the Instrument Cluster Module, the whole cluster is one big module now, 'bout the only thing you can replace is the bulbs.
CDC is the CD Changer
AAC is automatic climate control, or Automatic air conditioner to be correct about it.