Ryan, have you had the battery and charging system checked? The battery may not have the proper cold crank capability. It should crank longer than you indicated before running out of juice.
I don't see why you would glow the plugs once, let them cool off and try it again. When the plugs are red/yellow hot, that's when the engine will fire, (assuming everything else is OK). When you crank the engine, the glow plugs stay on. If the engine won't fire with properly functioning glow plugs, then your problem could be fuel or compression-related.